Predominately used synthetic chemical fungicides due to their non-degradable nature, entail serious issues to human health and also to the environment. This has also imposed the issue of drug resistant pathogens against traditionally used synthetic chemical fungicides. To combat this issue several in vitro and in vivo research reports have been generated on post-harvest treatment using plant extracts and essential oils to control fungal spoilage and thereby enhancing the self-life of fruits and vegetables. Plant based antifungal components have a target specific effect and are bio-degradable in nature. Thus they are best alternative to these hazardous synthetic chemicals. Biochemically antifungal principles can disrupt the membrane, causing cell leakage, cytoplasmic evacuation and loss of proton motive force (proton gradient including the membrane potential) and thereby results in the fungal growth inhibition. In the present study, essential oils from four Indian plants namely Cymbopogon citrates, Eucalyptus globules, Gaultheria procumbens and Syzygium aromaticum were used to find their potential antifungal activity against eleven important crop destroying fungal strains.3550 Руб.
Essential oils are widely known for their contribution in developing modern drug as well as herbal formulation in ethnomedicine against fungal infections. Problem of host toxicity and drug-resistance has impeded the success of antifungal therapy. Therefore, new and effective antifungal agents and approaches for treating these infections are warranted. The problem of drug-resistance, biofilm formation and associated pathogenicity in fungi has been discussed in this monograph. This work provides extensive investigation on certain essential oils/ active compounds for their antifungal and antivirulence activity against drug-resistant strains of fungi especially Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus fumigatus. This work has highlighted the mode of action and synergistic interaction of essential oils/compounds with antifungal drugs against planktonic and biofilm mode of growth of fungi. This book is a valuable work for students, researchers and clinicians interested in strategies for development of new antifungal agents with improved efficacy, novel approaches of drug delivery and search of novel compounds which can interfere with fungal virulence and biofilm formation.7612 Руб.
Different genera plants produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, aromatic principles and essential oils. These components are bioactive in nature and are used in variety of purposes like as phyto-medicine, preservative, antioxidant, fragrance and flavoring agent. Apart from routine uses, still many plants are not been fully explored and defined for bioactive role of their secondary metabolites. Similarly plant extracts of wide variety of taxa, have been reported to contain antifungal secondary metabolites and thus, natural products can certainly substitute harmful synthetic fungicides for plant disease control. Plants so are reservoir of biologically active compounds that can affect the metabolic activity of pathogens and that way help to combat the pathogen. Present research work is an effort to define the potential antifungal activity of hexane extracts of fifteen Indian commonly used Aromatic herbs and Spice plants against eleven important crop destroying fungal pathogenic strains. The finding of the present investigation also suggests that plants produce compounds or substances which are beneficial for them to survive in nature and in terms of fighting against microbes.3550 Руб.
Several fungi has been known to cause infection in humans as well as plants. Screening of natural sources for novel antifungal compounds can help to control fungal pathogens of both humans and plants. Fungi being eukaryotic organisms present special problems in chemotherapy. There has been a renewed interest in natural antimicrobial compounds which can be used in the control of mycotoxigenic fungi.This work describes plant seed extracts (prepared by microwave assisted extraction method) with antifungal and/or antibacterial activity. Further investigation on such bioactive extracts may lead to identification of potential lead compounds with both clinical and aesthetic applications. This work will be of interest to microbiologists, phytochemists, and all those who are into investigating bioactive natural products.4846 Руб.
The book highlights the fungal deterioration of herbal raw materials during storage in tropical and subtropical region, used in manufacture of Ayurvedic medicines. It provides information of fungal colonization and mycotoxin production in raw materials. The book explores the possible exploitation of higher plant essential oils as safe and ecofriendly alternative of synthetic fungitoxicants. Research findings in the book also giving information of bioactive potential in some plant essential oils where knowledge about them is still fragmentary. The book has been prepared to cater the needs of research students especially working on biopesticides/botanical pesticides and post harvest pathology of various substrates. The text is profusely illustrated with about 56 figures in the form of line diagram and photographs.6253 Руб.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the Antifungal activity of a locally found and ethnobotanically important plant Solanum xanthocarpum. Schard and vendle. (kantakari) .The crude extracts of powdered plant material were obtained in various polar and nonpolar solvents viz: petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and distilled water. Well defined zones of inhibition were recorded indicating that solanum xanthocarpum was potent against pathogenic fungus i.e. A. niger, A. flavus, A. candidus, A.parasiticus. The chloroform extract of whole plant showed significant inhibitory zone against Aspergillus niger . Comparatively the other extracts of whole plant were not more active against the other fungal strains. Standard antimicrobial discs: Fuconazole and Ketoconazole were used to test their antifungal potential and the discs showed remarkable zones of inhibition against the fungal strains which are at some extent comparable with the plant extract values.3550 Руб.
Wheat grains represent the main food resource to over one thousand million human beings of our planet. Wheat grains come in association with the fungi from the time of grain maturity to the time of storage. Fungi in stored grains are the most difficult enemy to be recognized for human, it can’t be seen easily as other pests. The fungal invasion not only reduces the quality of the grain but also some species of moulds can produce highly toxic chemicals known as mycotoxins. There are hundreds of Essential oils (EOs) have antifungal properties, they offer safe alternatives to pesticides. The potential use of EOs in the liquid phase is not ideal because of a need to a large quanty of EOs, consequently the high cost and also the high residue of these oils can be remained on the products, that can have undesirable odor or taste for consumer, for that EOs using in the vapor phase as a fumigant can be an interesting alternative. Depending on the time and storage temperature, EOs can be volatilized or become inactive. Encapsulation can be the answer to these problems by decreasing the evaporation rate of the EOs, promote the ease of handling and extend shelf life.4846 Руб.
Fighting against plant diseases, including those caused by fungal pathogens, has been a major challenge to plant breeders. Fungal pathogens contribute a huge yield-loss worldwide. Improving the plant genome by introducing novel antifungal genes has become a promising strategy. This book begins with an over view of plant disease resistance; plant arsenal itself has provided a number of transgenes that enhance disease resistance. This book consolidates various strategies that are exploited to enhance resistance against fungal diseases in plants. These strategies involve deploying candidate genes from plant’s own defense machinery or from non-plant resources. Drawbacks of these strategies are also discussed. The details of various fungus-resistant transgenic plants obtained using these transgenes are summarized.5685 Руб.
This book is the out come of one year research project under the guidance of Professors at Addis Ababa University. The author has made efferts to investigate the antifungal efficacy of herb and spice essential oils grown in Ethiopia. In the book, it was presented that thymus and cinnamon essential oils were the top promising alternatives than using chemical fungicides to suppress the growth of spoilage fungi. The book provides important and relevant information about herb and spice plants and can be used as a reference material for university students and researchers.3550 Руб.
Interest in medicinal plants has increased in recent years, this interest has lead to the discovery of new biologically active molecules by the pharmaceutical industry and the adoption of crude extracts of plants for self-medication by the general public, they are used in perfumes, cosmetics, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products. Since some essential oils have demonstrated anti-microbial effects it has been suggested that they may be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases4808 Руб.
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) demand a tremendous levy in terms of human life and healthcare costs, despite the fact that fungal diseases are still under-diagnosed and under reported. Several factors such as patient characteristics, antifungal prophylaxis and others appear to have contributed to a change in the spectrum of invasive fungal pathogens (i.e. Candida species, Non-Candida species, Aspergillus species and Non-Aspergillus species). Therefore, it is important to recognize and minimize the major risk factors associated with infection, and expanding the antifungal drug research for new antifungal agents to treat life-threatening invasive infections. This book would highlight past and current research on fungal pathogens and antifungal therapies, and also novel targets for antifungal agents for future development in medical practice to prevent invasive fungal infections. The book will describe novel antifungal agents, its targets, and various development phases and potential benefits of combination therapy.5685 Руб.
Five essential oils from various parts of plant species were investigated for their larvicidal properties against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results showed that all the five essential oils produced significant larval mortality against two mosquito species. However the highest larvicidal activity was observed in O. basilicum oil against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 values 75.35 ppm and 92.30 ppm respectively. However the LC50 values for A. calamus , M. arvensis, S. lappa and C. citrates against Ae. Aegypti were 99.41, 114.33, 128.89 and 136.28ppm respectively and against Cx. quinquefasciatus were 107.81, 112.18, 141.43 and 148.54ppm respectively. So according to the larvicidal activity, the essential oils were arranged in the following ascending order of preference i.e. O. bacilicum < A. calamus < M. arvensis < S. lappa < C. citrates.4846 Руб.
Diseased samples of the potato tuber were collected and the pathogen was identified as Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The Pure culture of the fungus was maintained and the antifungal activity of extracts of four aromatic plants (Mentha arvensis, Allium sativum, Zanthoxylum armatum and Eupatorium adenophorum) was assessed by poisoned food technique using five different concentrations i.e., 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% against F. oxysporum. Inoculum disc of 4mm in diameter was used in the experiment to test antifungal activity. The pathogenecity test was conducted by inoculating the pathogen in to the healthy tuber maintaining the aseptic conditions. Their fungitoxicity was calculated in terms of mycelial growth inhibition percentage of the test fungus. Extracts of Mentha arvensis, Allium sativum, Zanthoxylum armatum and Eupatorium adenophorum were able to check the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum by 82.5, 90.0, 82.5 and 87.5 % at 25% concentration respectively. Among the extracts of the test plants, the extract of A. sativum was found to be the most effective to control the fungus growth.4846 Руб.
Plants always played a key role in fulfilling human needs. But, like human beings and other animals, the plants are also subjected to various harmful and pathogenic diseases. This compilation of fungal diseases includes new plant fungal diseases reported during 21st century i.e. during the year 2000 to 2011. The plant disease like rot, leaf and stem spot, powdery and downy mildew, rust and smut, blight, wilt, damping off, die back and anthracnose were found prevalent caused by a vast group of fungal pathogens like species of Sclerotium, Rhizoctonia, Alternaria, Phytophthora, Ceratocystis, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Oidium, Erysiphe, Sclerospora, Podosphaera, Plasmopara, Golovinomyces, Puccinia, Coleosporium, Uncinula, Ustilago, Bipolaris, Phyllosticta, Choanophora, Ceratocystisfimbriata, Pithomyces, Botryodiplodia, Pestalotiopsis, Cercosporoids, Lasiodiplodia, and Phomopsis. The work will provide a useful compendium for mycologists and plant pathologists, increase the recognition of new fungal pathogens in phytopathological research, and spark new questions for future study.4846 Руб.
Plants are the most important part of the cycle of nature. All other life forms are directly or indirectly dependent upon plants. To control or mitigate plant diseases researchers are applying chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Such inputs to agriculture have contributed significantly to the spectacular improvements in crop productivity but at the same time playing a role as a pollutant for environment and human beings. Consequently, some pest management researchers have focused their efforts on developing alternative inputs to synthetic chemicals for controlling pests and diseases. Biological control of plant diseases is a long-term low-cost and non-detrimental to life. The development of biopesticides has been focused as a viable pest control strategy in recent years. Plant exudates, essential oils and extracts have potential antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi.Various kinds of alkaloids have been isolated from the leaves of A. scholaris. The present study was, therefore, carried out to explore the antifungal potential of organic solvent extracts of bark and leaves of Alstonia scholaris against one of the most phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium solani.3550 Руб.
Plant protection is an important area which needs attention since most of the hazardous inputs added into the agricultural system are in the form of plant protection chemicals. Production of the crop is, however,constrained by several disease infections including fungal diseases. The present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates possess a variety of promising properties which make it a better biocontrol agent.Twelve Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates from rhizospheric soil of faba bean were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Botrytis fabae that is known to attack faba bean crops. All isolates were tested for antifungal activity against Botrytis fabae. All isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens are indicated successfully employed in controlling chocolate spot diseases of plant due to their antifungal metabolites. The antifungal compounds were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol. All isolates Pseudomonas fluorescens were assessed for their plant growth promoting activity based on their ability to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA), and ammonia and phosphate solubilization and secondary metabolites.7698 Руб.