The domestic water buffalo is a major source of milk, meat, draught, hide and employment to the small farmers in many Asian countries especially Pakistan. The phylogeny and genetic structure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is still not explored well in Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli buffalo breeds of Pakistan. The genetic characterization of these breeds were completed using mitochondrial D-loop region and FAO/ISAG recommended microsatellite markers through sequencing and genotyping respectively. A reasonable number of SNPs and Allele variations were identified. The phylogenetic relationships among these breeds as well as with other breeds of the world were constructed using certain Bioinformatics softwares. This revealed very interesting information about phylogeny, history of domestication and origin of water buffalo in Pakistan and added valuable to the AnGR of the region. The work provided the basic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffaloes, breed identification, forensic and paternity tests and designing effective breeding and conservational policies in future.5006 Руб.
Egypt, as well as other countries, is facing shortage of water due to the increase of its population and the lack of water sources, especially at desert areas. The nature of soils in deserts is sandy and sandy calcareous soils. Such soils are poor with respect to their physico-bio-chemical properties, soil water plant-relationships, as well as their nutritional status. On the other hand, the gropes culture in Egypt induces large amounts of residues; moreover un-recycled old news-print papers which represent great problems in the disposal methods.. Eco-approach for production and evaluating of hydrogels from agro-wastes for reclamation of sandy soils is the presented in this monographs3600 Руб.
BML proteases is a pharmacologically active compound, which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study anti-tumorigenic activity of BML was recorded in MCF 7, PC3 and HeLa cell lines. Results proved that BML proteases application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumor cells. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. BML proteases treatment resulted in regulation of p53 gene and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in cancer cells. BML treatment attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, we conclude that BML induces apoptosis related proteins by blocking the MAPK kinase signaling in tumor cells, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.6341 Руб.
Cartilage is a connective tissue integral to the functioning of joints. A promising step in treating defective cartilage is the implantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells at the defect site. When carried by an appropriate scaffold to provide chondrogenic signals, bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into cartilage. Previous studies show that cells seeded in hydrogels without the inclusion of fibers experience cell-mediated contraction that leads swiftly to cell mediated death; the fibers are also considered key to improving mechanical strength of hydrogels. However, after three weeks in vitro in a collagen gel 3-D matrix, cells seeded in gels without fibers did not have significantly different cell viability percentages than cells seeded in gels with flat fibers or round fibers. Additionally, compressive testing at 10% strain indicated that the equilibrium stresses of gels with no fibers was significantly higher than equilibrium stresses of gels containing flat fibers. Therefore, the inclusion of fibers and the use of compressive stimulation conditioning may not be any more effective than simple tissue engineered constructs of cell-seeded collagen gels.5765 Руб.
Gliomas are refractory to chemotherapy because of acquired resistance, which is associated with changes in important cellular processes, such as cell cycle kinetics and cell death. The mechanistic relationship between resistance markers and failure of chemotherapy remains to be elucidated. To that end, identification of biological systems and their interactions is of great promise. We developed a mathematical model to provide a quantitative distinction between the influence of chemotherapy on cell cycle arrest and cell death from dose response curves and also applied this methodology to track the acquisition resistance to chemotherapy. We have also generated a panel of glioma cell lines with acquired resistance to chemotherapy and performed gene expression profiling and functional network analysis to unravel molecular pathways implicated in resistance. Our results provide insights into molecular pathways involved in resistance to carmustine in vitro. If they prove to hold for gliomas in human patients, these results can point the way towards improved therapeutic regimens that act upon NF?B mediated cell survival module in concert with cell cycle checkpoint abrogating agents.6634 Руб.
In this book, an interdisciplinary study is presented. In this study, a method for three-dimensional (3D) shape characterization and classification is proposed for the six different aggregates. In the first phase, a new 3D laser based imaging system is designed to capture images of aggregates. The imaging system has been optimized to minimize the errors during image capturing. In the second phase, novel 3D shape characterization parameters of the aggregates are extracted. Geometrical parameters of the aggregates are calculated in 3D spatial domain. The last phase, the aggregates are classified by using different classifier models (ANN, FLDA and KNN) with the help of these parameters. Among the classifier types, multi-layer perceptron neural network model that has two hidden layers gives the best performance that is 99.20 percent. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using manual measurement method and two-dimensional image processing method. Results are analyzed and compared with other studies given in the literature.4747 Руб.
Aurora kinases are the key regulators of cell cycle progression. Aurora-A and Aurora-B, expressed in somatic cells and are involved mainly in mitosis. Aurora-C is mainly expressed during gametomatogenesis and is involved in meiosis. Aurora-C is hardly detectable in normal somatic cells. The kinases are overexpressed in many cancer lines. Aurora-A possesses an oncogenic activity while Aurora-B does not. We investigated whether Aurora-C possesses such an oncogenic activity. We report that overexpression of Aurora-C induces abnormal centrosome amplification and multinucleation. The stable NIH3T3 cell clones overexpressing active Aurora-C formed foci of colonies when grown on soft agar, indicating that a gain of Aurora-C activity is sufficient to transform cells. We also reported that stable cell lines overexpressing Aurora-C induced tumour formation when injected into nude mice and abnormal mitosis along cell cycle, demonstrating the oncogenic activity of active Aurora kinase C. Interestingly enough tumour aggressiveness was positively correlated with the quantity of of active kinase, making Aurora C potentiaal anti cancer therapeutic agent.6644 Руб.
We obtained secondary data from the HIV/AIDS Monitoring Program at the Builsa District hospital, in which HIV patients were enrolled and their CD4 cell counts were being regularly monitored and thus generating repeated measures of CD4 counts. We could not tell whether patients on treatment increases or decreases in CD4 counts over time. The study was to investigate whether treatment and some social-economic factors influenced patients CD4 count after a period of treatment. Profile analysis was used to study the pattern of change in the CD4 count. Mixed effects modeling approach was also used for modeling the CD4 counts of the patients and to describe the relationship3600 Руб.
God is present in Man. Man is a part of Society. God is present in Society also, for what is Society but a collection of individuals? So individual and the Society are two sides of the same coin. If the individual is the microcosm, then Society is the macrocosm. Society is a macro manifestation of the individual and God is immanent in Society the same way He is immanent also in the individual. It is for that reason one must serve Society, for when we serve Society in the spirit of selfless love, we are in fact serving God Himself. Hence, the popular sayings: "Hands that serve are holier than lips that pray" and "Service to man is service to God". An individual is bound to relate to Society differently a) when the individual does not feel there is divinity latent within, and b) when the individual feels that there is God within her or him. There would be an enormous difference between the two approaches. Man is as crucial to God's creation as is the cell to the human body. The individual is a part of society, which is a part of creation, which is a part of God - that is the divine chain.4875 Руб.
Master Thesis in Applied Chemical Science, it Includes studing 27 different olive tree cultivars leaves ethanolic extracts in terms of their total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, toxicity to brine shrimps, anticancer activity (cell cycle analysis, cell death assay, MTT test), safety on normal cells (MTT test), LC-MS anlysis and quntification for some of their chemical constituents like Oleuropein, Oleanolic acid, Erythrodiol with its isomer Uvaol, Quercetin, Rutin. investigation of the presence of Resveratrol and Salicin qualitatively and quantitatively using LC-MS anlysis , studing the correlation between each constituent concentration in the extracts and their toxicity to brine shrimps also their correlation with anticancer activity on 7 cancer cell lines (MCF- 7, MDA-MB-231, C32, MV3, SW480, SW620, HCT-116), LC- MS(-)ESI,(+)APCI finger print of the most potent anticancer extracts.5770 Руб.
Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and Oleic Acid (OA) have been postulated to reduce the risk of breast cancer. This study has examined the effects of these dietary fatty acids on the induction of apoptosis in normal breast epithelial (MCF-10A), oestrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) and oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).Cell proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay, and the comet assay was used to examine the extent of DNA damage (as a marker of apoptosis). Changes in the expression of mRNA and the proteins of the major pro-apoptotic P53, p21WAF1/CIP1, BAX, BCL-XS genes and the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 gene were determined in these cell lines in vitro. The greatest cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis was observed after exposure to CLA. Further investigations focussed on the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumour effects of CLA. CLA increased P53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA expression (3-5-fold and 2-fold respectively) and decreased BCL-2 by 20-30%. Protein expression reflected the changes in mRNA expression.7718 Руб.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is under investigation as a therapeutic target for cancers. Colon cancer cell lines are variably dependent on autocrine stimulation of EGFR. This book therefore,examines the effects of a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib (‘Iressa'', ZD1839), on proliferation and survival of colon cancer cell lines whose autonomous proliferation is either EGFR ligand dependent or EGFR ligand independent. Using computational approach , different structural analogues were developed for Iressa, how it inhibits the epidermal growth factor kinase ; the studies include nature of the colon cancer and how Iressa work to stop cancer and also explains the ligand binding in EGFR kinase. The consequences help to understand the nature of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and how to inhibit intra and extra cellular signal. The In-silico properties facilitate more efficient design of screening libraries and serves as a foundation for numerous ADME compound profiling and drug ability assessments along the drug discovery value chain. It also helps to stop the cancer development; a new guideline for the design of inhibitors.4788 Руб.
The effect of low temperature on the cellular behavior of roots and shoots of Triticum aestivum cv. Katepwa (spring; sw) and cv. Beaver (winter; ww) was studied. To distinguish cellular responses, parallel measurements were carried out on embryogenic callus. Seedlings were grown either at 20?C (control treatment), or at 20?C followed by transfer to 4?C for 14 d and then returned to 20?C (cold treatment). The growth response of both cultivars was reduced at 4?C but the shoot meristem of ww at 4?C exhibited a faster relative growth rate and a shorter tissue doubling time than sw. This suggests that vernalization stimulates cell division in the shoot meristem. Interphase cells in the root meristem of both cultivars/treatments were smaller but had larger nuclei than those in the callus. More cells accumulated in G1 at 4?C in ww than at 20?C. In vitro and, to a lesser extent in vivo, the majority of cells were polyploid irrespective of cultivar/treatment. The interphase cell protein content increased significantly with increased nuclear DNA C-value regardless of cultivar/treatment. For ww in vivo, protein/C-value remained unchanged by transfer to 4?C, but that for sw decreased.7718 Руб.
A set of morphological traits and SSR markers were used to determine the genetic relationship among 12 elite thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines developed at three different research institutions of India. Agro-morphological data recorded on 20 morphological traits revealed a wide base of genetic variation and a set of four morphological traits could distinguish most of the TGMS lines. Analysis with 30 SSR markers (20 EST-SSRs and 10 genomic SSRs) revealed 27 markers to be polymorphic, amplifying a total of 83 alleles. Each SSR marker amplified 2–6 alleles with an average of 2.76 alleles per marker and a PIC value varying from 0.54 to 0.96. Cluster analysis based on SSR and morphological data clearly differentiated the lines according to their source of origin. Correlation analysis between morphological and molecular data revealed a very poor association (r = 0.06), which could be attributed to selection pressure, genetic drift, sampling error and unknown relationship among related lines.4788 Руб.
Affinity media with immobilized carbohydrates have been widely used for the separation of lectins in the final purification step in the multistep protocols. These affinity matrixes themselves are fairly expensive and contribute to the high purification costs. The present work shows a simple and inexpensive method for the preparation of an affinity chromatographic matrix for maltose-specific lectins. Agarose beads were prepared by emulsification technique where 4% w/v agarose was dissolved in boiling water containing 0.9% NaCl and used as water phase. A mixture of liquid paraffin containing 3 wt% of tween 80 emulsifier was used as oil phase. Beads with diameter from 40 to 80 ?m were obtained in this method. Agarose gel beads were activated using epichlorohydrin as activation reagent, after which maltose was immobilized as an affinity ligand on the epoxy groups. The prepared affinity matrix was evaluated by purifying Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) after packed into a column. The extent of purification was judged by SDS-PAGE.4788 Руб.