This work was conducted to evaluate the impact of seawater irrigation on growth, metabolism and ultrastructure of chloroplasts and oleosomes in flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), salt sensitive "Gemmieza-9" and salt resistant "Sids-1", cultivars. Among the cultivars, Sids-1 "salt tolerant" showed a better performance and produced more biomass under salt stress when compared with Gemmieza-9 "salt sensitive". Furthermore, it is clear from this work that the impact of seawater irrigation at 10% or 25% on both wheat cultivars particularly sensitive one had a negative effect on growth vigor of root and shoot, leaf area expansion, pigments content, membrane stability, relative water content, protein content, DNA, RNA as well as ultrastructure of chloroplasts and oleosomes of flag leaf during grain filling. On the other hand, seawater stress resulted in accumulation of inorganic ions, organic solutes, glycerol and saturated fatty acids which in turn involved with cell protection and osmotic adjustment. In addition salinity induced plant defense machinery with varying degrees in both wheat cultivars by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes.6829 Руб.
It is the cell surface molecule receptor CD4 and the two chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 that allow the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to enter and infect target cells; these are the direct or indirect targets of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) currently being tested in clinical trials. No characterisation of the potential effect of these drugs on the level of expression of the receptor and/or co-receptors on the cell surface has, as of yet been performed. This is despite the existence of heterologous modulation of at least CCR5 by compounds which are structurally similar to some ARV drugs. We investigated whether candidate microbicides could modulate the expression of CD4, CCR5 and/or CXCR4 on the cell surface membrane of various cell types. Cell lines expressing different or unknown levels of co-receptors were incubated with entry inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in a time course mode before assessment by flow cytometry.4788 Руб.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. This work was aimed at evaluating the potential chemopreventive effect of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves on 7,12-dimethylbenzeneanthracene-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice. Crude extraction protocol was employed in the preparation of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to analyze deoxyribonucleic acid (DNAs) extracted from the breast tissues of experimental mice while H and E was used for histological assay. DNA smears obtained from agarose gel electrophoresis suggested a possible DMBA-induced damage which was significantly prevented owing to the effect of the leaf extract of A. muricata leaves. Histological assay revealed the presence of DMBA induced lobular alveolar hyperplasia, fibro adipose stroma,and proliferating sebaceous gland in the histological sections of the breast tissues of treated mice, however, these changes were found to vary in occurrence among the different groups of treated animals. A. muricata could be used as a prophylactic measure against DMBA-induced cell proliferation3600 Руб.
Four mononuclear trans-planaramineplatinum complexes code named JH1, JH2, JH3, and JH4, and two trinuclear complexes code named JH5 and JH6 have been prepared and characterised based on elemental analyses, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectral measurements. The activity of the compounds against human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780cisR and A2780ZD0473R, cell uptake, level of binding with DNA and nature of interaction with pBR322 plasmid DNA and salmon sperm DNA have been determined. Among the mononuclear complexes JH1 is found to be most active: four times more active than cisplatin in the resistant cell line A2780cisR and six times more active in the resistant cell line A2780ZD0473R. Between the two trinuclear compounds, JH6 is found to be more active than JH5 in all three ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780cisR and A2780ZD0473R. JH6 is also more active than cisplatin in all the ovarian cell lines A2780, A2780cisR and A2780ZD0473R: two times more active than cisplatin in the parent cell line A2780, three times more active in the resistant cell line A2780cisR and about two times more active in the resistant cell line A2780ZD0473R.7718 Руб.
Skin lesions are traumatic events that lead to increased fluid loss, infections, scars formation and the appearance of immunocompromised regions. The loss of skin integrity can result in significant physiological imbalances and disability or even death. So far, different wound dressings have been developed. Among them, hydrogels are the most applied. Herein, a thermoresponsive hydrogel was produced using chitosan and agarose formed at body temperature (37°C), in order to verify their applicability in the treatment of wounds. Hydrogel bactericidal activity, biocompatibility, morphology, porosity and wettability were characterized by confocal microscopy, MTS assay and SEM. The attained results revealed that hydrogel has a pore size (90–400 µm) compatible with cellular internalization and proliferation. A bactericidal activity was observed for hydrogels containing more than 188 µg/mL of chitosan. The results obtained demonstrated that this 3D network has the suitable properties for improving the healing process of cutaneous wounds.3600 Руб.
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a metabolite deriving from 17-? estradiol, is a well-established antiangiogenic, apoptotic and antiproliferative agent in cell cultures and animal models. 2ME may also exert its cytotoxic activity by interacting with tubulin and by causing an impairment of the microtubular system. In this study was investigated the relative effectiveness of 2ME on glial and neural cell cultures in inducing morpho-functional changes and alteration of the microtubular system physiology. Results demonstrate that 2ME is more effective in neural cells than in glial cells. Moreover, the cytoxic activity of 2ME in both cell lines could be strictly related to an impairment of microtubule system physiology resulting in morpho- functional changes, block of mitosis and cell death.5765 Руб.
Controlled drug release enhances the safety, efficacy and reliability of drug therapy. The number of polymers suitable for the controlled release of viable therapeutics is quite limited due to inherent toxicity or lack of certain properties such as biodegradability. Chitosan, a non-toxic and biodegradable polymer was utilized as an ideal base polymer for the development of a series of new smart hydrogels for the use in the site-specific delivery of drugs to the gastrointestinal tract. The chitosan-based smart hydrogels were obtained particularly via three main approaches. The first approach was the incorporation of chitosan into interpenetrating networks with either a hydrophilic polymer or with hydrophilic monomers treated to bring about in situ copolymerization in presence of a crosslinking agent. The second approach was the grafting of suitable hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto chitosan followed by crosslinking. In the third strategy, chitosan was modified in such a fashion that the resulting smart hydrogels could be tailored for utilization in intestine–targeted delivery of peptide and protein drugs with a potential protection of the drugs from the harsh acidity of the stomach.7718 Руб.
Three dimensional cultures of cells have been used extensively to study cell-matrix interactions. These have included the use of hydrogels, sponges and mixtures of reconstituted matrix proteins such as laminin and fibronectin. The use of artificial matrices consisting of purified matrix proteins does not truly reflect the in vivo micro-environments that contain many other proteins mixed in a defined ratio. A novel in vitro model in use of late involves the use of a natural, cell-derived 3-D matrix that closely mimics the native tissue. As illustrated in this work, which investigated the interaction between fibroblasts and their matrix, there is continuous crosstalk between the two and this has an effect on type I collagen synthesis. Cell-matrix interactions are important in organogenesis, cancer, regenerative medicine as well as in fundamental cell biology. This book provides a comprehensive and systematic investigation into the regulation of type I collagen synthesis and provides evidence that the matrix is not an idle bystander in tissue but is an active participant in cellular processes.6644 Руб.
This book contains results of research carried out on physical fractals during a quarter of a century at the physics department of Universite Laval. The monomers of the fractals range from nano meter to micrometer scales. They span a region considered to be a transition from quantum to classical physics. The phenomena are sometimes treated with so called semi-classical physics techniques. However, a basic problem of the approach is due to the incompatible formulation of classical mechanics with quantum mechanics. The former being deterministic in a Hamiltonian space of coordinates and momenta, which is reduced to a space of coordinates or of momenta such that there is no clear transition from quantum to classical physical spaces. The fractals observed in the studies described here show the randomness typical of quantum phenomena in configuration space yet they appear static. Only in the nano meter scale there is some evidence of fractal motion. Further studies of fractals and monomers below the nano meter scale should reveal valuable aspects of the aforementioned transition region.2998 Руб.
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been detected in breast tumours and in breast cancer cell lines; they are a subpopulation of tumour cells with tumour initiating capacity, which self-renew and give rise to progeny that constitute the tumour bulk. It has been suggested that CSCs are major drivers of relapse after treatment because they are relatively resistant to drug- and radiation-induced cell death. Analysis of breast cancer stem cells has a major significance in the field of cancer therapy. From a therapeutic perspective, it is important to focus on the CSC population most responsible for tumour initiation, metastasis and relapse. But it is not currently clear which characteristics most define the highly tumorigenic population. Regarding this, my project focused on two main characteristics of CSCs: expression of pluripotency factors such as OCT4, and slow cycling properties using existing breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 that are known to contain a CSC population.Also, I attempted to leverage the marine bioproducts expertise of the Medical Biotechnology Department, and the Flinders Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development to screen for novel sponge-derived chemicals.4875 Руб.
The city of Lahore like other ancient cities was developed along the bank of a river, i.e. the River Ravi, currently a trans-boundary river between India and Pakistan. Therefore, since the development of Lahore city, its sewage and waste water was discharged into its adjacent river. However, the population explosion, urbanization, unplanned industrialization, broad scale use of synthetic fertilizers and household chemicals consequently deteriorate the water quality of the River Ravi due to significant discharge of wastewater from the metropolitan city of Lahore into it. As a result, the contaminated water of the Ravi not only affects the aquatic ecosystem of the river but also worsen its water used downstream for the irrigation, livestock, aqua-culture and recreational purposes. It is therefore essential to estimate the pollution load from the urban city entering into River Ravi in order to prevent and control the degradation of water quality of the River Ravi and help the researchers, decision makers, and the academics to evaluate the cause and pollution status of the most polluted river of Pakistan.5462 Руб.
The study was conducted to identify potential restorers and maintainers from indica/japonica derivative lines and conversion of selected maintainers possessing desirable plant type into CMS lines. 65 test cross combinations including one wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and 46 pollen parents were used as material of the study. The aspects of the study were development of source nursery and test cross nursery, estimation of pollen fertility, identification of potential restorers and potential maintainers. The study showed that of all the pollen parents in 65 success test crosses, 14 were restorers (21.54%), 27 were partial restorer (41.54%), 14 were partial maintainers (21.54%) and 10 were maintainers (15.38%).Out of 14 restorer lines, 11 lines were selected on the basis of crop uniformity. Based on scale of different characters a combined score was computed and on the basis of pooled approach of ranking, 5 top ranking (I-III) restorer lines were selected for converting into experimental hybrids. Among the 10 maintainer lines 4 potential lines were selected on the basis of pooled approach of ranking for conversion into new CMS lines.4788 Руб.
This study uses a Transwell model to establish different blood brain tumour barrier models. One two layer model consisted of hCMEC/D3, human brain endothelial cells, and human brain tumour cells, either DAOY or VC312R tumour cell lines, where each tumour type was separately co-cultured with the endothelial cells. Also, a triple co-culture model of human brain endothelial cells, rat brain slice, and tumour aggregate was created to mimic the in-vivo brain tumour.These models were characterised, and the effect of the growth of different brain tumour cell types alongside the brain endothelial cells was determined, in terms of detailed cell morphology, permeability coefficient and effect on zonula occludens (ZO-1) protein. Moreover, two types of lipid carriers were used, namely plain liposome and targeted liposome; the latter was conjugated with antibody against Transferin receptor. These lipid carriers were studied to compare uptake and permeability in the different cell types constituting these models.7718 Руб.
This book is about how to fractionate soil aggregates into different sizes having different levels of bonding energy. What the chemical characteristics of the fractionated aggregates compared to the bulk soils are. Furthermore, how each aggregate fraction behaves in physically protecting soil organic matter (SOM)as well as in releasing CO2 as affected by tillage under different micro-climate. What other factors affecting SOM decomposition either under field or under controlled laboratory and glasshouse condition. Those are interesting to study the aggregate building process in soils. And it can be applied for soil tillage operation. At this occasion, I would like to say thanks to Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) which invited me to publish my writing without any cost at all. By this, many people over the world will know what I did.4202 Руб.
Spices are mainly used for flavoring and they also have certain medicinal properties and are used in pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetics and several other industries. Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savory foods. Cinnamon which contains Cinnamaldehyde, Eugenol, Cinnamyl alcohol, Cinnamyl acetate, trans Cinnamyl acetate etc. Extraction of Cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamon Species and development of Modelling equation by Steam Distillation. Evaluation of Monod Kinetic Parameters for the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Cinnamon on Baker's Yeast. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon bark has been evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The in-vitro anti-cancer activity of Cinnamaldehyde on Breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines by using MTT cell growth inhibition assay. Cinnamaldehyde has many industrial and medicinal applications which plays a vital role in Cinnamon species.6644 Руб.
if you read this book you will explore the design procedures for microwave microstrip and metamaterial filters.A suggested design approach for designing UWB microstrip bandpass filter based on using both open and short ended stubs is introduced. Using the suggested design approach a bandwidth of approximately 10GHz can be achieved with the proposed simple topology which is more than what was fixed by Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for UWB radio systems. Moreover, a filter constituted was also designed and fabricated. this book explains the theory behind metamaterial transmission lines, and how these lines can be employed in filter design. it presents a suggested design methodology for designing microwave narrowband and ultra-wideband filters based on metamaterial transmission line CL-loaded approach. The unit cell used in the design is the composite right left handed (CRLH) transmission line cell, which consists of series interdigital capacitor and shunt short circuit stub inductor. the book shows how this metamaterial cell can be employed to design narrowband, and ultra-wideband bandpass filters as well.5765 Руб.