Established cancer cell lines have and continue to contribute tremendously for many discoveries and are some of the important tools for studies involving drug and biomarker discovery. Cell culture techniques has seen a multifold change with advancements in the technology; the biocompatible material available as culture supports and with enhancing understanding of cell physiology and culture behaviors. Culturing cells as monolayers in the 2D system are extremely important for various applications, likewise, the 3D systems of cell cultures have thrown valuable insights which were not possible with the 2D systems. Culturing cells in a 3D model is considered to bring in a closer ‘in vivo’ effect to the cells and cells in such a system sure show marked changes compared to their 3D counterparts. Several matrices and supports are available for culturing cells in 3D. Agarose hydrogels offer us a useful combination of economy and ease of applications. We present here the uses of agarose hydrogels to obtain 3D aggregates of 3 different human cancer cell lines as three chapters and one chapter dedicated to the model applications of such a system.4763 Руб.
What a tiny treasure in Salvia nutlets produces! Topics include pericarp structure of the nutlets, chemical - physicochemical properties of their hydrogels, and thermal stability of the hydrogels. Firstly nutlets of Salvia were grouped into 4 types in relation to the hydrogel productivity. Good co-relationship was observed between hydrogel content and pericarp thickness. Precise chemical analysis of the hydrogels from the nutlets of three species of Salvia, S. miltiorrhiza (SM), S. sclarea (SC) and S. viridis (SV), lead to the key finding that shows presence of composite structure of cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides consisting of neutral galactan or arabinogalactan and acidic (1,4)-linked xylan highly substituted with glucuronic and 4-O-methylglucuronic acids (SC and SV) or glucuronic acid (SM). Co-operations of electrostatic repulsion, cross-linkage through calcium ions and hydrogen bond were important for formation of the hydrogel structure. Importance of water structure and interactions between cellulose and acidic xylan was also evidenced. The summative results will provide utilization of Salvia hydrogels as future innovative biomaterials.5735 Руб.
Plant plays an important role as a source of many anticancer drugs with minimal side effects , for this purpose this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of crude and pure extracts of Convolvulus arvensis plant on cancer and transformed cell lines in vitro .This book also included the effect of these extracts on mitotic index on cancer cell line and lymphocytes. The book was demonstrated that the pure extract significantly inhibits the treated cancer cell line proliferation and cause apoptosis. Different methods have been used for detection of apoptosis: light microscope, fluorescent microscope and DNA electrophoresis.4579 Руб.
In response to the rising demand for engineered tissues and organs, there have been great research interests to fabricate functional tissues in laboratories, and such products may revolutionize the current approaches for medicine and healthcare. However, to achieve this daunting task of mimicking functionality and complexity of native tissues, scaffolds have to be sufficiently vascularized with precise controls so that the resident cells can be perfused with oxygen and nutrients. The materials designed and cell culture techniques presented here demonstrate their capabilities to support endothelial cell morphogenesis into capillary-like structures. Specifically, poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels were synthesized to promote and sustain therapeutic angiogenesis in hosts for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. By fine-tuning the biochemical and biophysical properties of gel matrices, micropatterning of biomolecules with photolithographic techniques, and co-culturing with mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells were induced to form blood vessels that were successfully integrated into host's vasculature in murine models.7766 Руб.
Concrete is a composite construction material made primarily with aggregate, cement, and water. There are many formulations of concrete, which provide varied properties, and concrete is the most used man-made product in the world. Concrete is widely used for making architectural structures, foundations, brick/block walls, pavements, bridges, dams, pools/reservoirs, even boats etc. There is a general view that the size of coarse aggregate affects only the properties of fresh concrete and it is impact on hardened properties is insignificant. This book presents the impact of different sizes of coarse aggregate on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. While slump cone test evaluated the fresh concrete properties, compressive strength test determined the hardened state properties by using concrete mixtures that proportioned with three types of cements. Graded coarse aggregates with maximum aggregate size were selected for this experimental program for each cement. The results show that while the coarse aggregate size influences the slump, it is not relevant to compressive strength. The latter properties are governed by (w/b) ratio, cement type and cement content.4763 Руб.
The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of telomerase activity in normal and cancerous cell lines and tumor tissues by combined PCR-ELISA assay. Cell lines, canine mammary tumor tissues and human oral cancer tissues were processed for protein extraction. The concentration of the protein was determined by Bradford’s method and used for Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The amplified products were electrophoresed on 20% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel along with 10bp ladder. The presence of 6 base repeats starting from 50 nucleotides is considered as positive. Then the TRAP products were immobilized on to streptavidin coated microtitre plates via biotin - streptavidin interaction and then detected by anti-DNP antibody conjugated with horse radish peroxidase. The absorbance was measured at 450 nm and at 690 nm. Samples was regarded as telomerase positive if ?A is greater than 0.2, where ?A: net increase of absorbance for the sample = A sample – A heat-treated sample.Telomerase serves as an efficient biomarker for diagnosis of tumor and cell lines serves as a model system to investigate the efficacy of telomerase targeted therapeutics for cancer.4763 Руб.
When compared to MTA cells, MTB-01 cells were susceptible to risedronateinduced apoptosis, had decreased ability to bind to risedronate-treated bone, and did not produce MMP-2 or MMP-9 proteases. MTA cells were less susceptible to risedronateinduced apoptosis and produced MMP-2. Additionally, adhesion of MTA cells to bone matrix was not diminished by risedronate treatment. Our results suggest that the nonresponsive nature of the MTA cell line may be due to MMP-2 production (possibly allowing ongoing destruction of risedronate-treated bone), continued adhesion to risedronate-treated bone matrix, and decreased susceptibility to risedronate-induced apoptosis.5488 Руб.
Some new 1,3,4 Thidiazoles were synthesized, derivatized, characterized by TLC, Melting point, their individual percentage yield were studied and selected compounds were characterized by IR, NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry and their invitro anti cancer activity were tested on HT-29 cell line by employing MTT assay, the parent and few of the derivatives have shown significant IC50 activity.3581 Руб.
A comprehensive research was performed on application of demolished construction wastes in road pavement layers. The research succeeded in cataloging the specifications of recycled aggregates mixes for practical works, followed by development and evaluation of different mixes of recycled aggregates obtained from different sources. Detailed assessment based on compliance with requirements, performance prediction and modeling was completed. Evidently the research is likely to have a number of implications on the design and construction of highways. Firstly, the demonstrated viability of mixes containing recycled materials can lead to significant cost savings, reduced carbon footprint, reduced exploitation of virgin materials and minimization of dumping of civil engineering waste. If embraced in industry, the suggested use of recycled materials can help support national and international targets regarding sustainability, environmental and energy conservation.6794 Руб.
Soil aggregate formation and aggregate stability have an important role in crop production and sustainable agricultural management. Formation and maintenance of stable aggregates is the essential feature of the soil tilth. Aggregates formation in the soil takes very long time and influenced by several factors such as soil organic matter, binding agents, soil fauna, environmental variables, microorganisms and roots. This book focuses on a novel idea of synthetic aggregates formation within very short time from different types of waste materials and their different utilization in agriculture. These kinds of unconventional synthetic aggregate production have not much been reported in the literature. Several kind of synthetic aggregates were produced from different waste materials such as sewage sludge, paper waste, oil palm waste, sugarcane trash, starch waste, coal fly ash, wood chips, coir dust, cattle manure compost and chicken manure compost. Developed aggregates were utilized in agriculture as a soil amendment, fertilizer support, and potting media for containerized plant cultivation. These synthetic aggregates proved that they can be utilized in agriculture very effectively.6609 Руб.
This book focuses on defining the principles of bioadhesive delivery systems based on hydrogels to biological surfaces that are covered by mucus. An overview of the last decade’s discoveries on mucoadhesion and applications of mucoadhesive hydrogels as drug carriers is given. Techniques that are frequently used to study the adhesion forces and physicochemical linteractions between hydrogel, mucus, and the underlying mucosa are reviewed. Typical examples of applications of mucoadhesive hydrogels to mucosal routes of delivery are given. Finally, the perspectives of the application of these polymers in drug delivery are discussed.4763 Руб.
This book reports on a study in the macro and micro forms of thermosensitive hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) that are intended for use in textile-based applications in a controlled release of drugs via a transdermal route. A synthetic polymer PNIPAAm was combined in both the linear and crosslinked form with a natural polysaccharide alginate to form thermosensitive hydrogel films and microbeads of semi- and full-interpenetrating polymer network structures. A further form of thermosensitive hydrogel microbeads was obtained by the modification of PNIPAAm network in the presence of maleic anhydride as a comonomer. The study underlines the advantages of functionalized over pure PNIPAAm hydrogels in terms of their thermal, swelling, mechanical, morphological, and drug releasing properties. The presented research constitutes a valuable starting point in development of a smart textile patch that has properties to release the drugs at a temperature-controlled rate.5943 Руб.
Since its discovery in 1997 by three independent groups, PTEN has become one of the most studied tumour suppressor genes. PTEN gene encodes a 403 amino acid sequence protein which has a vital role as a negative regulator for the highly oncogenic prosurvival PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. However, PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumour suppressor genes in human cancer. Expression and subcellular localization of PTEN can be affected by certain chemokines. This project has been carried out to study and investigate the effects of CXCL12 chemokine on the expression and subcellular localization of tumour suppressor PTEN in cancer cells. Methods: Two cell lines with different PTEN protein profiles; human endometrial carcinoma HEC 1B, and human neuroblastoma SH SY5Y were stimulated with 20, 50ng/ml of CXCL12. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting have been performed in triplicate to determine the expression and subcellular localization of PTEN before and after the CXCL12 stimulation.3581 Руб.
The present work is the first large-scale study of the in situ effects of high-tension power transmission lines on the natural flora species. The study focused on pollen mother cell meiosis, meiotic product, pollen fertility, and leaf anatomy. The test specimens showed significantly higher percentages of meiotic abnormalities. The mean meiotic abnormalities and mean percentages of sterile pollen grains showed strong positive correlation with the increase in voltage, but not with the strength of magnetic field. The leaf anatomy showed rather inconsistent results; however in majority of test specimens, wider vessels and thicker leaves were detected, suggesting a positive effect of high-tension lines. This in situ study has revealed that the genotoxic effects associated with high-tension transmission lines are not solely due to the EMF, but other factors associated with these lines like Ozone, NO,NO2 and UV radiation may in fact be more responsible. The high rates of meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility due to genotoxic effects of high-tension lines indicate the risks not only to plant species in the natural and semi natural ecosystems; but other organisms are also at risk.6609 Руб.
Diabetes is a major public health problem. The new therapies developments that are able to improve glycemia management, cure diabetes and even protect from it are of great interest. This study investigated the effect of selected plant extracts on the Insulin 2 gene expression profile against STZ- induced pancreatic cell damages. M.charantia extract showed the highest value of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and total flavanoid content compared to M. citrifolia and P. speciosa extracts. Expression of both GAPDH as the reference gene and Ins2 gene as the target gene was measured by SYBR Green I fluorescence; melting curves and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to verify the specificity of gene (Ins2) for diabetic rats treated with M. charantia extracts expressing fold differences of 32 fold expression compare to the diabetic control rats only. This study report the preliminary study of the effect of plant extracts on the pancreatic cell insulin gene expression profile. The results represent an important step toward improved understanding of the regulation of insulin secretion on insulin 2 (Ins2) genes.4763 Руб.
This work was conducted to evaluate the impact of seawater irrigation on growth, metabolism and ultrastructure of chloroplasts and oleosomes in flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), salt sensitive "Gemmieza-9" and salt resistant "Sids-1", cultivars. Among the cultivars, Sids-1 "salt tolerant" showed a better performance and produced more biomass under salt stress when compared with Gemmieza-9 "salt sensitive". Furthermore, it is clear from this work that the impact of seawater irrigation at 10% or 25% on both wheat cultivars particularly sensitive one had a negative effect on growth vigor of root and shoot, leaf area expansion, pigments content, membrane stability, relative water content, protein content, DNA, RNA as well as ultrastructure of chloroplasts and oleosomes of flag leaf during grain filling. On the other hand, seawater stress resulted in accumulation of inorganic ions, organic solutes, glycerol and saturated fatty acids which in turn involved with cell protection and osmotic adjustment. In addition salinity induced plant defense machinery with varying degrees in both wheat cultivars by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes.6794 Руб.