Fish lives in environments with a wide variety of chemical characteristics (fresh, brackish and seawater, acidic, alkaline, soft and hard waters). From an osmoregulatory point of view, fish have developed several mechanisms to live in these different environments. Fish osmoregulation has always attracted considerable attention and in the last years several studies have increased our knowledge of this physiological process. In this book several specialists have analyzed and reviewed the new data published regarding fish osmoregulation. The chapters present an integrative synthesis of the different aspects of this field focusing on osmoregulation in specific environments or situations, function of osmoregulatory organs, general mechanisms and endocrine control. In addition, interactions of osmoregulatory mechanisms with the immune system, diet and metabolism were also reviewed. New emerging techniques to study osmoregulation has also been analysed.6715.8 Руб.
Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems28541 Руб.
Antioxidants are substances that may prevent potentially disease-producing cell damage that can result from natural bodily processes and from exposure to certain chemicals.There are a number of different antioxidants found in foods and available as dietary supplements. Ginger considered from the most popular spices cultivated in large area all over the World plants. Ginger is used as food seasoner and flavoring material in the food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a broad range of biological activities have been attributed to Ginger.The present work was carried out to evaluate ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) volatile oil and its extracts. This work included the proximate analysis of ginger rhizome, physicochemical properties of ginger essential oil, chemical analysis of essential oil by GC-Mass, the effect of ginger essential oil and its extracts on mitocondria lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging, study antimicrobial effect of essential oil of ginger and its extracts. Also, to study the anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of ginger and its extracts in acute and chronic inflammation.4788 Руб.
The epithelial membranes composed of epithelial cells cover most of the internal and external surfaces in the body. Like other cells the epithelial cells also possess specialized cell to cell junctional structures and in doing so may undergo transition from one type to the other particularly at the junctions with heterogeneous cells.A novel biophysical approach has been adopted in the present study to investigate the physico—chemical nature of the dento—epithelial junction. The philosophy behind this approach is that all the living cells, including the epithelial cells exhibit a transmembrane potential difference4788 Руб.
Image contrast enhancement is a widely used technique in image processing, which aims to improve the contrasts of degraded images. Low contrast is one of the most common defects of photographic, medical and electronic images and consequently enhancing the contrasts of the degraded images becomes necessary. In the present study, four contrast enhancement methods, Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Global Histogram Equalization (GHE), Brightness preserving Bi-Histogram Equalization (BBHE) and Brightness Preserving Dynamic Fuzzy Histogram Equalization (BPDFHE) were applied on MATLAB popular images and also on microscopic images of in vitro cell migration assay. Efficiency of the techniques in contrast enhancement and mean brightness preservation were compared based on the output images and the resulted histograms. In general, Histogram Equalization (HE) based methods could enhance the contrast of the images better than the introduced Fuzzy Inference system. BPDFHE demonstrated the highest efficiency in contrast enhancement and mean brightness preservation of the images, representing great potential for further applications in photographic, electronic and medical image processing.3600 Руб.
Differentiation i.e. development of single cell into complex multicellular organs & tissues, results through selective gene expression which is specific to cell type, region & organ. Therefore, identification of biochemical markers during sequential stages of organogenesis could be used to identify early events of differentiation, embryogenic potential or serve as an indication of loss of regeneration capacity with culture age. Keeping in view these facts, this M. Phil. dissertation on T. indica, an important medicinal plant comprises of six chapters: Chapter-1 highlights background for selection of this plant species; Chapter-2 is compilation of relevant updated literature in the area of tissue culture, biochemical & SDS-PAGE studies; Chapter-3 deals with details of materials & techniques used; Chapter-4 presents the findings of study supported by tables, photographs & illustrations; Chapter-5 discusses the results in the light of available literature and Chapter-6 is summary of work followed by literature cited. This M. Phil. dissertation will be useful for reseachers working in the area of plant tissue culture & cell differentiation.4788 Руб.
The blood plays many important roles in coordinating the individual cells in to a whole complex organism. Hence, the blood is being studied extensively by the physiologists, bio- chemists and bio-medical engineers, but it has not drawn much attention of physicists. However some reports are available on ultrasonic, dielectric and dielctrophoretic properties of human blood and its erythrocytes. Keeping this in view, the main aim of this thesis to investigate clinical parameters such as erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, platelet count, hemoglobin content, pH and ESR; and biophysical aspects like viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, osmotic fragility, refractive index and density of blood of patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis inorder to evaluate the degree of severity of the disease – Pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study is complementary to the existing pathological and Biochemical investigations in medical discipline.5765 Руб.
There are continuous efforts to replace harsh chemicals with enzymes in textile processing. Cellulase is a commonly used enzyme for processes such as bio-finishing, bio-polishing and softening of cotton fabrics. The term enzymatic effect is used to account for the changes in the molecular structure of cotton fabric brought about by the cellulase enzyme as monitored by activity of the enzyme, loss in fabric weight, tensile strength and elongation at break, as well as the color strength of the enzymatically treated fabric when dyed with reactive dyes. Dependence of the enzymatic effect on essential factors affecting the enzymatic treatment was studied. Also factors affecting the color yield when the enzymatically treated fabric samples were dyed independently with reactive dyes were studied. Eco-friendly technique for multifunctionalization of cotton fabric was established. Water and energy conservations are featured to address quality of the environment. Three processes, viz., cellulase biotreatment, reactive dyeing and easy care finishing, are run in a consecutive sequence without involvement of washing and/or drying steps in-between; this technique is based on wet-wet procedures.4234 Руб.
Microtubule is an essential component of the cytoskeleton required for several important cellular processes such as cell division, cellular morphogenesis and migration. In cells, functions of microtubules are tightly regulated by additional microtubule-associated proteins called MAPs. Fidgetin is a microtubule-associated protein, which influences several microtubule based cellular processes by regulating microtubule dynamics. Fidgetin is a microtubule severing and depolymerizing enzyme and possibility by utilizing these properties it regulates mitosis and cellular migration. Both of these processes are extremely important during cell proliferation and tissue morphogenesis. Defects in these processes may lead to malignant transformation and developmental defects including neurodegenerative disease, as the formation of neuronal processe is in many ways a modified form of cell migration. Notably, Fidgetin mutation causes developmental and behavioral defects in mice. This study might lead ways to the molecular etiology of these diseases and develop effective therapeutic strategies for their treatment.4788 Руб.
Diagnostic enzymes are important for biochemical analysis of samples of blood, serum and urine for monitoring and diagnosing disease. With rising healthcare costs and to improve patient care, diagnostic laboratories have been challenged to develop new tests that are reliable, cost–effective and accurate and to optimize existing protocols by making them faster and more economical. Major step involves the immobilization of enzymes for their better handling and re-usability for screening large number of samples. In the present work, new method for fabrication of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based enzyme strips were developed that can be commercially exploited. PVC being cheaper, chemically inert with ease in moulding to various shapes & size will channel a new pathway in design & fabrication of diagnostic kits and related biomedical instrumentation.4788 Руб.
Effective attachment of cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered tissue substitute. Better understanding of biophysical responses of adherent cells is of great importance in optimizing biomaterial surface for tissue engineering applications. In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and carbon nanotubes (CNT), were surface-modified with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to improve their compatibility. The results of adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on ECM protein-immobilized PLA and CNT monolayer demonstrate the different biophysical responses of PEFs on unmodified and ECM protein-modified biomaterial surfaces. ECM protein immobilization effectively promotes adhesion of PEFs to biomaterials surfaces. In addition, it is found that functional blocking of ?1 integrin impaires cell-fibronectin interactions. Adhesion strength is tightly correlated to focal adhesion density, which is explained by peeling and fracture models. Furthermore, Weibull distribution is proved to satisfactorily describe cell adhesion strength in adherent cell population.7718 Руб.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the incredible complexity of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.6644 Руб.
Throughout the centuries natural compounds have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of different diseases. One of the groups of natural compounds that has recently attracted increased interest of researchers and clinicians are fungal polysaccharides. Along with the macroscopic fungi, or mushrooms, yeasts also represent a source of valuable polysaccharides contained in their cell walls. Beta glucan as part of yeasts cell wall were highly concentrated on their biological activity and their interaction as non-adaptive immunomodulating agent and other biological effects when applied in different systems in vivo and in vitro. For this reason this study aimed to investigate the effect of ?-glucan as anti-angiogenic agent and other immunological effect.2954 Руб.
Pakistan is one of the ancient homes of cultivated cotton. It provides not only foreign exchange earning crop but raw material to local textile industry also. Weeds are serious menace blocking the way of improvement in the yields of agricultural crops. Cotton crop is no exception; weed infestation is one of the main factors lowering its yield through competition for resources and adverse allelopathic effects. Weeds in cotton are controlled manually, mechanically or chemically. Manual weed control is highly labor dependant. Mechanical control is economical but it controls only inter row weeds. While chemical control is most efficient method but in addition to resistance development it has many soil and environmental issues. Allelopathy is a natural and environment friendly technique for weed management and unlike synthetic herbicides, such products are produced naturally in the crops and used directly as pesticides. They are effective, economically viable and environment friendly. The allelopathic potential of sorghum and brassica has been reported in various studies. Combined use of allelopathy and herbicide provides more efficient result in many field studies.4788 Руб.
This research work aims to investigate the required image processes to extract the features of the red blood cells, and to utilize these features to recognize the normal blood cells from some considered types of anemia infected blood cells. Two sets of features (i.e., geometrical and textural) were suggested, and their discrimination capabilities have been tested. The suggested blood cell recognition scheme consists of three stages. The first stage implies all image processing steps required to determine the background/target colors and to isolate the cell area (target) from the surrounding. Then, the external boundary pixels of the cell cut-out are traced. In the second stage the trace points are used to determine some adopted geometrical features (like; Fourier descriptors, aspect ratio, moments) which have been used to describe the shapes of the blood cells. Also, some textural features are computed to evaluate the spatial color variation within the blood cell. A comprehensive analysis was performed to determine the capability of the considered geometrical and textural features to recognize the types of blood cells.5462 Руб.
Since ages body fluids routinely used for diagnostic purposes are blood, urine, tears and cerebral spinal fluid but these fluids require more invasive collection procedures, potentially causing discomfort and stress to the patient during procurement. Since 2002, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) created opportunities to overpower these limitations by investigating oral fluids as a diagnostic tool for assessment of health and disease status. In the past 50 years salivary research has picked up the pace with the dawn of new techniques that illuminated the biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva embracing the multifunctional roles that saliva has in speech, lubrication, digestion of food and maintaining oral and general health.There is an opportunity of enhancing research conducted in the field and expanding the adaptability of using saliva as the diagnostic fluid in point of care diagnostics.5765 Руб.